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Operating procedures for potato storage and preservation

Views: 0     Author: HowCool     Publish Time: 2024-03-04      Origin: Site

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Operating procedures for potato storage and preservation

Potatoes are the fourth most important food crop in the world, second only to wheat, rice, and corn.

Potato cold storage

1  Potato storage characteristics

1. Variety and storage resistance

Potatoes can be divided into five categories based on maturity: extremely early maturing, early maturing, medium maturing, medium late maturing, and late maturing. From their uses, they can be divided into fresh eating potatoes, seed potatoes, and processed potatoes. The storage tolerance of potatoes is related to the variety and cultivation field management. Generally, varieties that mature in autumn are more tolerant to storage, and tubers with less nitrogen fertilizer, high dry matter content, and fewer diseases are easier to store during cultivation.

2. Problems that are prone to occur during storage

The problems that arise during potato storage vary in different regions. In the southwestern region, due to the warm and humid climate and abundant rainfall, the greatest risk of storage is late blight; The main problems with storage are decay, shrinkage, germination, frostbite, mold, etc.

Potato cold storage 

3. Storage diseases and their prevention and control

There are two types of potato storage diseases: infectious diseases and physiological diseases.

Infectious diseases mainly include fungal, bacterial, and viral diseases. Fungal diseases include late blight, early blight, cancer, powdery scab, dry rot, etc; Bacterial diseases include ring rot, bacterial wilt, black shank, and soft rot; Viral diseases include leaf rolling virus, heavy mosaic virus, and common mosaic virus. The prevention and control measures for potato infectious diseases mainly include the selection of specialized varieties, breeding of virus-free seed potatoes, pest control techniques, and storage environment regulation.

The physiological diseases of potatoes mainly include frost damage, germination, and green skin. When the storage temperature is below 0 ℃, potatoes are prone to freezing damage; When the storage temperature is above 4 ℃, the probability of potato germination increases significantly; Light is the main factor causing potato skin to turn green. After turning green, it will produce solanine, and excessive consumption can lead to poisoning. Maintaining stable temperature and avoiding light storage are the main methods for preventing and controlling physiological diseases in potatoes.

2 Suitable storage conditions

(1) Seed potatoes

Temperature: 2 ℃~4 ℃.

Relative humidity: 85%~95%.

Gas composition: CO2 concentration not exceeding 0.2%.

Light exposure: In the later stage of storage, seed potatoes can be irradiated with scattered light, with a minimum scattered light intensity of 75 Lux.

(2) Fresh sweet potatoes

Temperature: 4 ℃~6 ℃.

Relative humidity: 85%~95%.

Gas composition: CO2 concentration should not exceed 0.5%.

Lighting: Fresh sweet potatoes should be stored away from light, and low-power electric lamps should be used during lighting operations.

Design and Construction of Potato Cold Storage

Potato Cold Storage

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