Views: 125 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-11-03 Origin: Site
Current situation of cold chain logistics park
With the gradual warming of cold chain logistics, the supporting infrastructure has also been developed rapidly. As for refrigerated vehicles, according to statistics, the number of refrigerated vehicles in China in 2008 was less than 50000, with an annual growth rate of less than 8% in the previous decade, while the growth rate of refrigerated vehicles in recent years was about 15%. The growth rate of cold storage is even faster. In the Development Plan of Cold Chain Logistics for Agricultural Products issued by the National Development and Reform Commission in 2010, the total capacity of cold storage in China is 8.8 million tons (the actual total capacity has reached more than 15 million tons). By the end of 2013, it was preliminarily estimated that the total capacity of cold storage built and under construction in China has exceeded 25 million tons.
Cold chain logistics park is a phenomenon of rapid development of logistics and full attention to cold chain logistics in China. Foreign logistics parks cover a variety of functions, including cold storage and cold product logistics functions, and generally do not appear as an independent park concept. In order to emphasize the particularity of the cold chain, we call the building cluster of centralized processing, trading, storage and distribution of cold products as the cold chain logistics park. On the one hand, it reflects the importance of the cold chain, and on the other hand, it adds an eye-catching concept to the construction of the park.
Another factor rarely seen in foreign countries is the characteristics of product circulation. In the United States, most agricultural and sideline products and aquatic products are produced and delivered according to orders. There are few wholesale market transactions, so there are few cold chain logistics parks focusing on cold product transactions. However, there are many cold product trading links in China. Many wholesale transactions and multi link operations have created the demand for cold chain logistics parks.
Problems in cold chain logistics park
The problems encountered in the rapid development of China's cold chain logistics parks are first the park construction, and then the park operation and management. The construction of the park belongs to strategic investment, and its impact will be long-term and huge to both enterprises and society. Although there are many problems in the operation of the park, the management problems can be gradually improved, and the mistakes in the planning and positioning of the park often bring irreparable losses. We emphasize the problems existing in the planning and construction of the cold chain logistics park, mainly hoping to attract the attention of managers and investors, solve them in a targeted manner, and try to avoid similar situations, so as to promote the healthy and sustainable development of the cold chain logistics park in China.
1. Blind construction of cold chain logistics park is serious.
At this stage, the development of the cold chain industry in China is greatly affected by policies. The financial support and land concessions of the government guide investors to invest in the industry. The original intention of the government's incentive policy is to promote the long-term and sound development of the cold chain industry, but the interests pursued by investors are often contrary to the original intention of the policy.
Some cold chain logistics parks have changed the planning direction, increased the commercial building area, reduced the area of cold storage or delayed construction after getting preferential land from the government; The construction of some cold chain logistics parks is affected by the policy, ignoring the actual market demand, and the investors rely on "beating their heads to make decisions", resulting in the construction mode and scale of cold storage deviating from the actual market demand.
2. Many investors in the cold chain logistics park have no experience in agricultural product circulation or logistics management.
According to the understanding of investors in logistics parks and cold chain logistics parks, more than 60% of investors have no relationship with logistics and cold chain logistics. Investing in cold chain logistics can enjoy the benefits brought by short-term policies, and can obtain stable income from long-term operation of cold storage. It is an area with relatively small real estate risks. However, non industry investors face relatively many risks and difficulties when investing in cold storage.
3. The construction of cold chain logistics park mostly focuses on the architectural form, lacking professional planning consultation.
The cold chain logistics park is a facility mainly for logistics operation, product trading and logistics processing, and the cold storage is a building containing more professional technologies, so the construction of the cold chain logistics park should pay more attention to the preliminary planning and research. However, many investors in cold chain logistics parks do not want to spend money on planning and research, but rather trust their intuition and existing information.
Someone summarized this: "Many people are willing to spend money on lessons rather than ideas." This phenomenon is more obvious in the planning of cold chain logistics park. The cost of planning consultation abroad generally accounts for 2%~3% of the total investment, but we prefer to spend money on construction. In 1997, HAVI spent 50000 US dollars (equivalent to 400000 yuan) to hire a professional shelf consulting company to plan the shelf system when building the Beijing Logistics Center, which is unimaginable for domestic enterprises.
Many investors in China prefer to choose the planning scheme provided by suppliers free of charge, the shelf layout scheme provided by shelf manufacturers free of charge, and the park planning scheme provided by architectural design institutes free of charge. Many large enterprises decide the park planning provider by bidding when building the park. The bidding scheme is the park design provided without payment. Once winning the bid, it is equivalent to approving the bidder's planning scheme. Most of the remaining work is to draw the structure diagram, which contains certain hidden dangers.
4. Get on the horse in a hurry, and change while building.
As "land acquisition" is particularly critical to the construction of cold chain logistics parks, many investors rush to make park construction plans and submit them to the government for approval before submitting projects to the government. Once the land is obtained, it is too late to carry out detailed strategic research, demonstration and planning, so we rushed to work and made changes at the same time, which caused a lot of waste and seriously affected the construction quality. With the gradual disappearance of the land dividend, the possibility of success based on land appreciation has become less and less.
5. The national standard for cold storage construction still needs to be improved.
The Code for Design of Cold Storage GB50072-2010 issued in 2010 is the only national standard for cold storage construction. In the standard, the maximum fire separation of the cold storage is 3500 square meters, while the dry warehouse of the same grade is 6000 square meters. No inflammable goods are stored in the cold storage, and the cold storage insulation is made of non self igniting materials. In the case of increasingly complex cold storage operation, it is unreasonable to limit 3500 square meters as the maximum separation area. The standard also stipulates that the partition between the cold storage room and the hall should be a firewall, and the fire resistance of the partition should not be less than 3 hours.
The above regulations have greatly restricted the construction of cold storage. For example, if 10000 square meters of steel structure cold storage is built, how should fire separation be carried out? According to this standard, the construction cost of the cold storage will increase, the thermal insulation performance of the cold storage will be reduced, and the operation of the cold storage will be inconvenient. If it is only to prevent the fire risk caused by ammonia refrigerant, ammonia refrigeration can be described separately. At present, many national standards have been issued. According to the statistics of 2010, there are as many as 380 logistics related standards being formulated and published. If these standards are introduced, most enterprises do not know about them, nor can they say they are adopted by enterprises.
Strategic positioning of cold chain logistics park
The strategic positioning of the cold chain logistics park is very important. What the park should and should not do, and the location, operation mode and scale of the park should be clear at this stage. The strategic positioning of the park should not be based on simple visits, but on short-term policy guidance. The strategic positioning must be based on local market information, industry development characteristics, national development direction and the overall strategy of the enterprise. In 2012, the cold chain logistics park in Ma Village, Haikou, Hainan Island initially planned to build a large-scale cold storage focusing on vegetable pre cooling, but after strategic research and positioning, it was changed to a aquatic product trading center focusing on seafood and aquatic product cold storage, avoiding the wrong orientation of the cold storage in the park.
Planning and design of cold chain logistics park
The planning of the cold chain logistics park is to set a comprehensive development plan for the cold chain logistics park in the future, to investigate and analyze the integrity, systematicness and basic functionality of the cold chain logistics park in the future, and to design the future development direction of the cold chain logistics park. It is different from the national or regional logistics development planning, as well as the planning of other functional parks. It involves a wider geographical scope, involves a wider range of fields and requires more research. It should be planned according to the characteristics and development of logistics itself and related industries. At the same time, we should also consider the interaction between it and the surrounding economy.
The elements of cold chain logistics park planning mainly include: ① the economic development status and urban development of the region; ② Current situation of cold chain logistics in the region; ③ Analysis of construction necessity and feasibility; ④ Site selection demonstration; ⑤ Positioning analysis; ⑥ Functional design; ⑦ Layout planning; ⑧ Transportation planning; ⑨ Planning of relevant logistics information system; ⑩ His supportive and supportive system planning; Implementation plan for construction and development.
Development trend of cold chain logistics parks in the future
The rapid development of new terminal channels such as fresh e-commerce, chain catering, new retail, cross-border e-commerce has promoted the vigorous development of cold chain logistics. In view of the broad prospects of cold chain logistics, this big cake has attracted a large number of successive logistics enterprises. Logistics enterprises began to build cold chain logistics parks on a large scale, and the development mode of the parks has become increasingly diversified. Cold chain logistics park is in the rising stage of rapid development in China. The development trend of cold chain logistics park is bound to be affected by the economic development stage and changes in the circulation mode of cold products due to its nature of being attached to the circulation industry. What are the development trends of cold chain logistics parks in the future?
1. Multi functional integration.
Quality assurance and timeliness are the rigid requirements of the current society for the cold chain logistics industry; Modern cold chain logistics park can not only provide single services such as cold storage and cold chain transportation, but also better meet the social needs of the same park. Therefore, the efficient integration of storage, processing, distribution, testing, display, trading, multimodal transport and other functions in the same park has become the next development trend of the cold chain logistics park.
2. Industrial clustering.
The park gathers cold chain enterprises with different functions, and relies on geographical and regional economic advantages, transportation, warehousing, goods import and export, logistics processing and distribution, information processing and related equipment manufacturing efficient clusters to form highly intensive logistics resources and extremely professional logistics industry chain management and operation, and improve the overall operation efficiency of all enterprises in the region.
3. The platform is networked.
Based on big data, the professional logistics network platform of cloud computing can realize the interconnection between parks and help park enterprises get rid of the dilemma of point management and information island; At the same time, the cold chain logistics park supported by the network can give full play to the logistics transaction, electronic settlement, warehouse receipt pledge, financing guarantee and other service functions; The park management has also changed from a single landlord role to a solution service provider, providing enterprises with comprehensive supporting services such as finance, information, data and supply chain through the park platform.
4. Intelligent equipment.
Intelligent automation of equipment will be widely used in cold chain parks. Only by using advanced handling equipment, stacking equipment, sorting equipment, packaging equipment, bar code, radio frequency and other information technologies can we realize the mechanization, automation and informatization of cold chain logistics and meet the requirements of modern logistics for speed, accuracy, dispersion and flexibility. This will open up more space for the promotion and application of logistics technology and equipment. In addition, energy conservation and environmental protection will also become an important direction for the development of cold chain equipment, which not only responds to the national call for "dual carbon economy", but also saves energy costs for enterprises.
5. The cold chain logistics park is subdivided.
With the refinement of commodity circulation, the supporting logistics hardware facilities also require customized design. The layout and buildings of production, storage and transaction cold chain logistics parks are quite different. There are also differences between the logistics park built in the origin area, the logistics park in the circulation center and the logistics park near the consumption place. The products operated are different, such as vegetables, fruits, meat products or aquatic products, which have special requirements for cold storage. Therefore, the subdivision of park construction and cold storage can not only save investment costs, but also provide convenience for logistics operation.
6. Cold storage construction develops at both ends of the circulation chain.
At present, there are too many circulation links of cold products in China. From fields, ocean ponds to common people's dining tables, there are six or seven links or more. With the gradual refinement of the commercial circulation system, intermediate links will be reduced. Strengthening the pre cooling treatment of agricultural products has a great impact on the quality of the subsequent circulation process. At present, the facilities for the pre cooling treatment of vegetables and fruits close to the field in China are seriously insufficient. The integration of agricultural industry is the basis for the development of large agriculture and order production. With the change of agricultural production mode, there will be greater demand for pre cooling treatment and cold storage facilities close to the production and planting end.
7. The rapid development of cold chain B2C mode.
B2C mode of cold products needs cold chain support, and has high requirements for operation. The distribution cost is much higher than that of general goods. However, with the improvement of the people's consumption level, the cold chain house allocation will face great demand. At this stage, e-commerce relies on outsourcing cold chain logistics, and the form of outsourcing product packaging will not be competitive. Self built cold storage facilities suitable for the operation of e-commerce cold products will be the next step e-commerce should consider.
8. Convenient food safety supervision.
The development of the cold chain logistics park has provided convenient conditions for the government regulatory authorities to conduct centralized supervision on food safety, played a positive role in promoting the construction of the food safety system and strengthening the functions of the food safety regulatory system, and can effectively check the source, whereabouts, responsibilities, safety and centralized supervision.